Rafał Nowak, Natalia Sobczak, Tiziana Lanata, Enrica Ricci, Bartłomiej Korpała



Surface tension of liquid tin under high vacuum was measured by the technique of large drop, using a versatile set of apparatus for high temperature testing of the properties of liquid metals and alloys. Two procedures of the metal drop surface preparation were applied, i.e. 1) the sample of tin before being placed in a vacuum chamber was cleaned mechanically and in an ultrasonic washer, 2) after the first test round, the surface of the same sample was additionally cleaned by ionic surface treatment, using for this purpose the apparatus of a unique design, which enabled the sample to be transferred directly and without the need to release the vacuum from the preparation chamber provided with an ionic gun to the high-temperature chamber. In preparation chamber, under the conditions of high vacuum, the sample was treated with ionic gun to remove from its surface the oxide nanocoating. Next, without opening the apparatus (no contact of the treated sample with air), by means of a special manipulator, the sample was moved to a transfer chamber (UHV), first, and to a measurement chamber (HV), next. The sample of tin was placed in a sapphire crucible and heated to 700°C at a rate of ~12°C/min and, as a next step, the measurements of the surface tension were taken. The next series of the measurements was taken during the stepwise (every 50°C) cooling of the sample to 300°C. The surface tension was calculated using an ASTRA-2 program developed by CNR-IENI (Genoa, Italy). The calculations were done as a part of an agreement of cooperation between the Foundry Research Institute in Cracow and CNR-IENI in Italy. The results of the calculations were included in the doctor’s thesis submitted by Ms Tiziana Lanata who was awarded a research scholarship at the Institute.

Keywords: surface tension, studies of liquid metal properties, tin, large drop method, ion etching,
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