|Irena Izdebska-Szanda, Michał Angrecki, Aleksander Palma
The article presents results of an investigation which constitutes a section of research under the project POIG.01.01.02-00-015/09 "Advanced materials and technologies", one of the aims which is the introduction of new ecological inorganic binders into making casts from non-ferrous metals. The application of chemically modified inorganic binders aims at improving knock-out properties and related to it reclamability of moulding sands with the participation of, previously used in foundry practice, inorganic binder (water glass), and at the same time allowing the application of ecological binders for casting non-ferrous metal alloys. Reclamation of moulding and core sands is a fundamental and effective way to manage waste on site at the foundry in accordance with the environmental guidelines. Therefore, studies of reclamation of waste moulding and core sands with new types of inorganic binders, developed within the framework of the project, were carried out. The article presents these results of the investigation. These studies allowed determining the degree of recovery of useful material, that is the reclaimed sand, and the degree of its utilisation in the production process. The article also presents the investigation results of multiple reclamation, which is the continuation of a previously conducted initial investigation. The investigation described in the present article also includes the validation of results under industrial conditions.
Keywords: modified inorganic binders, reclamation, reclamability,
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Aleksander Palma, Irena Izdebska-Szanda, Michał Angrecki
The article presents results of laboratory tests to develop a new generation of foundry hybrid bentonite. Hybrid bentonite is intended for use as binder for synthetic moulding sands and sandmixes. In the previous practice foundry bentonite was a product of processing of one type of montmorillonite clay coming from one selected deposit with a determined geological origin. Hybrid bentonite is not a homogenous material but a mixture of, most often, two or more materials, which come from several geologically different deposits. This material variety, according to preliminary assessments, gives a chance to obtain hybrid bentonite, which is not used in foundry practice, which has better, in certain scopes, physicochemical and technological properties. From preliminary tests it also results that these bentonites have a number of different parameters which are higher than the properties of previously produced binders for synthetic moulding sands. For tests of hybrid bentonites, which were conducted on a laboratory scale, while preparing batches of test bentonites both montmorillonite clays from several Slovakian deposits and bentonite loam of Polish origin were used. The tests were carried out in two stages, that is, during the first stage hybrid bentonite was obtained on the basis of two bentonites only from Slovakia, and during the second stage on the basis of selected Slovakian bentonite and Polish bentonite loam. In both cases the investigation resulted in achieving hybrid bentonites, which had higher not only physicochemical but also particular technological properties than initial bentonites which were used for the production of hybrid bentonites. These parameters include higher content of montmorillonite, higher wet compressive strength and compressive strength in the over-moisture zone, as well as high thermal durability comparable with the best materials.
Keywords: synthetic moulding sands, foundry binders, hybrid bentonite,
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Maria Żmudzińska, Janusz Faber, Katarzyna Perszewska
Methods of direct measurement of air pollution increasingly used in environmental studies are not standardised and do not meet the requirements of the applicable European standards. The article presents studies on the determination of parameters characterising the method used in the environmental measurements of the concentration of nitrogen oxides using direct measurement meters. The following parameters characteristic of this method were defined: working range, limit of quantification, accuracy, repeatability, the expanded uncertainty of the method. The determination of parameters characterising the method for the determination of nitrogen oxides content in the air at workplaces enabled the presented method to be adapted to the requirements of European standards.
Keywords: nitrogen oxide, work environment, direct measurement meter,
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Barbara Mrzygłód, Anna Adrian, Krzysztof Regulski, Izabela Olejarczyk-Wożeńska, Stanisława Kluska-Nawarecka
The presented paper is a description of one of the modules of the CAPCAST system which allows determination of recommended materials made of ductile cast iron which show specific properties or may achieve the desired properties after an appropriate heat treatment process. The approach is based on the application of the knowledge developed from the TTT diagrams in order to establish the heat treatment conditions to achieve the desired microstructure of cast iron and thereby the expected properties of the material.
Keywords: TTT diagrams, ductile cast iron, diagrams digitisation, mechanical properties of cast iron,
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Stanisław Pysz, Jarosław Piekło
This article presents the latest tendencies within the scope of the application of computer simulation in the process of developing new solutions, including solutions in foundry practice. The functioning of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering is described, which is regarded as a leading tool for developing new materials, constructions and technologies in aerospace, automotive and maritime industries in the USA and the European Union. The functioning of ICME was studied in the process of developing a cast construction by modelling stresses of the cast at work, modelling alloy properties and the technology itself. Threats and benefits resulting from the application of ICME are also presented.
Keywords: casting, ICME, Integrated Computational Materials Engineering, modelling,
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Irena Izdebska-Szanda, Maria Żmudzińska, Janusz Faber, Katarzyna Perszewska
One of the factors which influence development tendencies within the scope of moulding sands used in foundry practice is environmental protection. Hence, while assessing technologies, the composition of utilised materials and emissions of harmful substances during particular stages of the production process should be taken into account. Binders used in foundry practice undergo constant transformations which result from the needs of achieving casts of higher quality, from improved efficiency and environmental protection. These challenges are met by our newly developed inorganic binder, which is designated for making casts of non-ferrous metal alloys. In the article presented are the results of research on pollution emissions in the process of making casts of aluminium and brass, with the use of moulding sands with new inorganic binders. Determined concentrations of released chemical compounds were the basis to calculate exposure indicators which were compared with allowable values. It allowed the assessment of the impact of the utilised moulding sands on the work environment. The results of our research were compared against results achieved with the use of moulding sands with organic binders. The research was conducted within the project POIG.01.01.02-00-015/09 "Advanced materials and technologies".
Keywords: moulding sands, modified inorganic binders, work environment,
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Barbara Mrzygłód, Stanisława Kluska-Nawarecka, Adam Kowalski, Dorota Wilk-Kołodziejczyk
The presented paper is a description of the significance of CCT and TTT diagrams in the processes of heat treatment of ductile cast iron, and especially during the production of ADI. A review of literature in the subject was made. Own research included drawing up TTT diagrams for four types of ductile cast iron which mainly differed with respect to the content of nickel, copper and molybdenum additions, respectively: 1.55% Ni and 0.73% Cu; 2.26% Ni and 1.44% Cu; 1.60% Ni and 0.69% Cu, as well as 1.50% Ni and 0.45% Mo. Presented are microstructures of products of overcooled austenite transformations from the selected samples used for the construction of a CCT-4 diagram. On the basis of the analysis of the achieved diagrams, the influence of Ni, Cu and Mo on temperature and time of particular phase transformations in ductile cast iron during anisothermal and isothermal cooling is discussed. Properties of ADI with additions of 1.55% Ni and 0.73% Cu were determined which meet the requirements for four types pf cast iron according to the standard EN-PN 1563.
Keywords: CCT diagrams, TTT diagrams, ductile cast iron, ADI, structure,
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