Andrzej Baliński



The article is a compilation of the most important results obtained during execution of own research project regarding the possibility of using fly ash formed during combustion of hard coal as a base granular material in moulding mixtures and as a reinforcing phase in cast aluminium alloy-based composite materials (ALFA composites). The chemical composition of the domestic fly ash, characterised by the greatest stability of composition (the content of the main chemical compounds is the following - wt. %: SiO2 = 81,66%, Al2O3 = 6,69%, Fe2O3 = 4,37%, CaO = 4,29%, MgO = 1,57%), was determined together with the composition of respective phases (quartz, mullite, larnite) and some typical phase transformation-related values of temperature (melting point = 1435°C, flow temperature = 1494°C, dimensional stability up to 1230°C). The effect of washing process and magnetic separation of fly ash on changes in the value of its helium density, specific surface, and chemical and phase composition was discussed. The process of washing decreases significantly the content of sodium (by about 20 wt. %), calcium (by about 14 wt. %) and magnesium (by about 11 wt. %), removed mainly from the glassy phase. Applied effectively, this process also causes a decrease in the value of the fly ash true density and specific surface. Magnetic separation of fly ash removes the magnetic particles in an amount of about 26% in convertion to Fe2O3. A decrease in the content of aluminium, sodium, potassium and calcium usually accompanies this effect. The removal of magnetic phase is accompanied by a drop in the value of true density and specific surface. The article presents the results of investigations regarding the fly ash agglomeration behaviour when conducting the process in a disc granulator and in a pressure granulator. It has been stated that neither of these two methods of agglomeration enables obtaining a truly compact and solid material. The obtained agglomerates are characterised by a porous structure, the agglomerates produced in disc granulators having definitely larger pores. The examined fly ash was used as a base granular material for the manufacture of moulding mixtures used in the Shaw Process, in the process of thermo-setting mixtures (with sodium silicate as a binder), and in mixtures for the CO2 process. The basic technological properties of the manufactured moulding mixtures were determined along with their thermal resistance and residual strength. The applicability of these mixtures in production of foundry moulds and cores for elements cast from metal alloys at temperatures of up to about 1000°C was stated. The effect of the fly ash-based moulding mixture on the chemical composition and morphology of a phase boundary in aluminium alloy casting was analysed. The fly ash used as a base material in foundry mixture was observed to have no effect on changes in casting microstructure and morphology. Investigations of the possibility to use fly ash as a reinforcing phase in ALFA composites were preceded by investigations of the physico-chemical properties of fly ash used as a base material in foundry mixtures after pouring of these mixtures with molten metal. In spite of high reactivity of molten aluminium and its alloys in contact with the examined material, no interaction has been observed to take place. After a heat treatment of the ready, fly ash-containing, composite, where the said fly ash was acting as a reinforcing phase and was introduced in an amount of 5 wt. %, as well as a heat treatment of the base material, i.e. aluminium alloy samples, it was observed that the yield strength RP02 and tensile strength Rm of the composite increased by about 10%, compared to analogical values obtained for the base, fly ash-free, aluminium alloy. The value of the composite elongation A5 decreased by about 60%, while the value of HBW 5/250 raised by about 55%, compared to analogical values obtained for the base material.

Keywords: fly ash, agglomeration, moulding mixture, composite,

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Piotr Dudek, Paweł Darłak, Aleksander Fajkiel, Tomasz Reguła



Nanomaterials extend the range of their application in human activities. The past few years have faced a considerable increase of interest in various aspects of the application of nanotechnology in liquid phase metallurgy, especially in metalcasting. Nanocrystalline materials are fabricated not only by the advanced solidification techniques with application of ultra-high solidification rates, or by modern techniques of spraying. Other processes used so far for the manufacture of products from metals, metal alloys and composites, like the common gravity casting, may also form nanocrystalline phases in alloy structure by the in situ mechanism of phase formation. Quite promising is the possibility of application in foundry industry of nanomaterials in vitro, e.g. as a reinforcing phase in metal matrix composites, or in new generation modifiers for metals and alloys. This article presents the results of the tests carried out to produce nanoparticle materials for aluminium alloys modification. The alloy nucleation on nanosize particles guarantees obtaining a fine-grain structure in the treated material. The modifiers were fabricated by mechanical disintegration and alloying of pure aluminium powder with titanium-, carbon-, SiC- and/or boron-bearing compounds. The scope of the research covered: • tests of mechanical alloying of the aluminium-based powders with carbon, titanium and boron added in different weight fractions; • structural examinations of the modifiers (chemical composition, grain size).

Keywords: nanomaterials, aluminium alloys,

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Zenon Pirowski, Jacek Wodnicki, Jerzy Olszyński



In the second part of the study, describing the role of vanadium and boron microadditions in the process of structure formation in heavy-walled castings made from ADI, the results of own investigations were presented. Within this study two series of melts of the ductile iron were made, introducing microadditions of the above mentioned elements to both unalloyed ductile iron and the ductile iron containing high levels of nickel and copper (the composition typical of ADI). Melts were conducted with iron-nickel-magnesium master alloy. Thermal analysis of the solidification process of the cast keel blocks was conducted, the heat treatment of the alloys was carried out, and
then the effect of the introduced additions of boron and vanadium on the hardenability of the investigated cast iron was examined and evaluated.

Keywords: innovative foundry materials and technologies, heat treatment, austempering, austempered ductile iron ADI, alloying microadditions,

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Marta Homa



This work reviews the current state of research regarding high temperature oxidation resistance of Fe-Cr-Al steels, that belong to a family of AFA (Alumina Forming Alloys). The behavior of these steels in hot gases environment is a subject of intensive research. During high temperature oxidation, the protective layer of alumina oxide is formed on their surface, which can have different crystallographic forms. Moreover, Al2O3 can transform from instable γ- phase to δ, θ and finally stable α-phase. The type of alumina depends on temperature, time and atmosphere composition. The phase transformation of aluminum oxide is accompanied with change of oxidation kinetics because instable oxides grow faster than unstable ones. Additionally, during phase
transformation the morphology change of surfaces is observed. Instable phases have the form of platelets, very long thin crystals (whiskers) and blade-like crystals, in all cases resulting in the formation of highly developed scale surface. Stable α-phase shows columnar crystals construction with corresponding pleated scale surface.

Keywords: Fe-Cr-Al steel, high temperature oxidation, alumina scale, phase transformation, surface morphology,

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