Mariusz Holtzer, Angelika Kmita, Agnieszka Roczniak

Processes of pyrolysis and their effect on cast quality and working conditions


The article discusses the thermal processes undergone by the sand mould in contact with the liquid casting alloy. Depending on the character of the atmosphere in the mould, this can be the process of combustion or pyrolysis (when there is no oxygen). These processes, especially when the sand mould contains compounds with carbon, (e.g. sand moulds with resins or bentonite and lustrous carbon formers (LCF)), generating the proper atmosphere inside the mould, have
a significant effect on the presence of such casting defects as: veinings, burn-ons and liquid metal penetration. In order to avoid these defects, a reducing atmosphere should be formed inside the mould cavity. The article provides a comprehensive review of the studies, including the authors’ own works, in the scope of the pyrolysis process taking place in sand moulds with the addition of a carbon-containing substance. Diagrams of the mechanisms of the thermal decomposition of resins and lustrous carbon formers (LCF) given by various authors are presented. The pyrolysis processes generate many hazardous compounds from the group of the so-called Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs), including those from the BTEX group (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) as well as from the PAH group (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), which create risks for the health of the foundry workers.

Keywords: pyrolysis, carbon, graphite, sand moulds, lustrous carbon, GC/MS, FTIR, TG/DTG,
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