|Tomasz Szymczak, Grzegorz Gumienny, Dorota Wilk-Kołodziejczyk, Tadeusz Pacyniak|
Effect of chromium on the crystallization process, microstructure and properties of hypoeutectic Al-Si alloyAbstract
The paper presents the results of studies of hypoeutectic silumin with a chromium addition used for pressure casting. A silumin with the composition similar to that of EN AC-46000 was used as the initial one. In order to introduce chromium into the initial silumin, an AlCr15 master alloy was applied. The amounts of the initial silumin and the AlCr15 master alloy were selected in the proportions making it possible to obtain about 0.1; 0.2; 0.3; 0.4 and 0.5 wt. % of Cr in the alloy. Both the initial silumin and the silumins with the chromium addition were examined. The results of the thermal and derivational analysis performed to investigate the silumins’ crystallization process have been presented. The microstructure of the silumins cast into an DTA tester and under pressure has been demonstrated. The basic mechanical properties of the pressure cast silumins have been presented. The results of the DTA analysis showed an effect of the chromium addition on the course of the crystallization process of the examined silumin. Three thermal effects are present on the silumin’s DTA curves, caused by the crystallization of the solid solution α(Al), and of two eutectics α + Al15(Fe,Mn)3Si2 + β and α + Al2Cu + AlSiCuFeMnMgNi + β. The introduction of chromium in the amount of about 0.2 wt. % caused the presence of an additional thermal effect on the derivation curve, originating from the crystallization of the intermetallic phase containing chromium. The crystallization of this phase occurs before the precipitation of the dendrites of phase α(Al) from the liquid. The microstructure analysis of the silumins cast into the DTA tester showed the presence of precipitations of a "new" phase in the silumins containing 0.2% wt. Cr or more. With the occurrence of an additional thermal effect on the DTA curves as well as the "new" phase in the silumin’s microstructure, the lack of phase Al15(Fe,Mn)3Si2 was observed. In the pressure cast silumins, the chromium addition also caused the formation of a "new" intermetallic phase, which occurs with the Cr content of about 0.3 wt. % or more. Its morphology is similar to a faceted one. With an increase of the chromium content, the size of this phase significantly increases as well. The investigations of the basic mechanical properties of the pressure cast silumins showed that the Cr addition makes it possible to significantly increase mainly the tensile strength Rm and the unit elongation A. To a lesser extent, this element caused an increase of the hardness HB. The values of the proof stress Rp0.2 of the initial silumin and the silumins with an increased chromium content do not change significantly. The highest mechanical properties were obtained for the silumins containing about 0.2 and 0.3 wt. % Cr.
Keywords: silumin, chromium, microstructure, mechanical properties, high pressure die casting,
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